Data Link Layer

The data link layer transforms the physical layer, raw transmission facility, to a reliable link. Data link layer enables physical layer appear error free to upper layer (network layer). A data link layer is responsible for moving frames from one hop to the next.

Responsibilities of data link layer:

Framing:

The data link layer divides stream of bits received from the network layer into manageable data units called frames.

Physical addressing:

If frames are to be distributed to different systems on the network, this layer adds a header to the frame to define the sender or receiver of the frame. Frame is intended for a system outside the sender’s network, receiver address is the address of the device that connects the network to the next one.

Flow control:

If the rate at which data is taken by the receiver is less than the rate at which data are produced in the sender, and then the data link layer imposes a flow control mechanism to avoid overwhelming the receiver.

Error Control:

The data link layer adds reliability to the physical layer by adding mechanisms to detect and retransmit damaged or lost frames. Data link layer use a mechanism to recognize duplicate frames. The error control is normally achieved through a trailer added to the end of frame.

Access Control:

When two or more devices are connected to same link, data link layer protocols are necessary to determine which device has control over the link at any given time.

Hop to Hop delivery:

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